physics chemistry by clear learning Physics and Chemistry by a Clear Learning

  Mechanics       Electricity       Optics       Chemistry       Matter       Nuclear



PCCL youtube channel:

 facebook page of PCCL


Physics Chemistry Interactive Flash Animations


© PCCL 2004-

All rights reserved

Update: August 16, 2023


PCCL © 2004- - All rights reserved



Intellectual Property

The elements of the site (Flash ® animations, video, ...), logos are protected by copyright and are PCCL exclusive property. They may not be copied or used on another website than this one. Pursuant to L. 122-4 of the Intellectual Property Code Article, any reproduction of a full or partial content of the site is prohibited, regardless of its form (breeding, nesting, distribution, technical "inline linking" and "framing" ...). The direct links to downloadable files on this site are prohibited. Links to html pages are allowed, and the viewing in classroom.






The program is fully covered in this website, from flash animations and interactive exercises.
For each course, an entertainment and exercise are possible.
Electricity, chemistry, mechanics, optics are common themes at all levels.










Entry of light into the eye


Existence of two types of light sources:

- Primary sources (stars, sun ...);

- Scattering objects (planets, satellites, white walls ...).

A necessary condition for vision: the entrance of light into the eye.xistence de deux types de sources de lumière :




Rectilinear propagation of light


The light beam.

Model of the light.

Direction of propagation of light.

Own shadow, shadow and shadow cone: interpretation in terms of light rays.


Phases of the Moon, eclipses: simplified interpretation.


Colored lights and color of objects


First notions of colored lights:

- As a filter;

- Continuous spectrum;

- Superposition of colored lights.

First ideas on the color of objects.

By absorbing light, the matter receives energy. It heats up and transfers part of the energy received from outside the form of heat.



Lenses: homes and pictures


Principle of image formation in geometrical optics.

Concentration of energy with the thin lens convergent.

Focal length.

Safety: danger of direct observation of the sun through a converging lens.

Modeling of the eye.

Vision results from the formation of an image on the retina.

Experimental approach to corrections of the defects of the eye (myopia, hyperopia).


Speed of light and sound, signal propagation


- The light can propagate in a vacuum and in transparent media like air, water and glass.
Speed of light in vacuum (3x108 m / s or 300,000 km / s).
Orders of magnitude of distances from Earth to a few stars and galaxies in the Universe or duration of propagation of light corresponding.

- Sound travels in matter media (solid, liquid and gas) and it does not spread into space.
Magnitude of the speed of sound in air: 340 m / s.
Sounds too intense have implications for the hearing.

- A transmitter (light source, sound source, transmitting antenna) transmits a signal that propagates this signal can be received by a receiver (eye, ear, receiving antenna).
The man is surrounded by a multitude of signals that carry information.


A dispersive prism
Characterization of radiation.
Descartes' laws of refraction for radiation (one of the media being air).
Dispersion of white light by a prism.
Change in the index of a transparent medium according to the radiation passing through it; qualitative interpretation of the scattering of light by a prism.

The emission spectra and absorption.



Emission spectra
Continuous spectra of thermal origin.
Line spectra.

Absorption spectra
Absorption bands of colored solutions.
Absorption lines characteristic of an atom or ion.

Application to astrophysics


Visibility of an object


Role of the eye in direct view of objects. Propagation of light: model of the light-no-object.
Converging lenses, diverging lenses. Simple screening criteria.


Images formed by optical systems


Images provided by a plane mirror

Observation and location of the image of an object given by a plane mirror.
Conjugated image point of an object point. Laws of reflection.


Images provided by a converging lens

Observation and location of images given by a convergent lens.
Geometric modeling of a thin lens convergent optical center, fireplaces, focal distance, vergence.
Analytical model: relations conjugation and thin converging lens magnification.
Magnifying glass.


An example of optical device


Experimental modeling of an optical instrument simple telescope, spotting scope or binoculars, camera projection or rear projection...


The light wave model


Experimental observation of diffraction in monochromatic light and white light (irization).


Wave model of light speed, wavelength in vacuum, frequency :

λ = c.T = c/ν.

Influence of the size of the aperture or obstacle on the observed phenomenon; angular beam diffracted by a slit or a straight wire of width a :

θ = λ / a.

Monochromatic light, polychromatic light, frequency and color.
Propagation of light in transparent media, index of the medium.
Highlighted the phenomenon of dispersion of white light through a prism: the index of a transparent medium depends on the frequency of light.



- Produce images, see


Formation of an image

Image formed by a converging thin lens

Graphic constructions of the image:
- An object plane perpendicular to the optical axis.
- A point object at infinity.
Conjugation relations in algebraic form, magnification.
Validity of this study : Gauss conditions.


Image formed by a converging spherical mirror
Summit, home, principal optical axis, focal length.
Graphic constructions of the image:
- An object plane perpendicular to the principal optical axis.
- A point object at infinity.


Some optical instruments

The microscope

Brief description and role of each component: condenser (spherical mirror), objective eye.
Modeling a system of two thin lenses:
- Graphical construction of the intermediate image and the image of an object plane perpendicular to the optical axis.
- Characteristics of the intermediate image and final image by building and / or application forms of conjugation.
- Apparent diameter.
- Standard magnification.
- Eye-ring.


Telescope and Newtonian one

Brief description and role of each component :
- Telescope : objective eye.
- Newtonian : spherical mirror, plane mirror target.
Modeling of the telescope by an afocal system of two thin lenses and modeling of a Newton telescope with a mirror system, thin lenses :
- Graphical construction of the intermediate image and the image of an object plane perpendicular to the optical axis.
- Characteristics of the intermediate image and final image by building and / or application forms of conjugation.
- Apparent diameter.
- Standard magnification.
- Eye-ring.










- Gravitational Interaction


Brief presentation of the solar system

Attractive action exerted by remote /
- The Sun on each planet;
- A planet on an object close to it;
- An object to another object because of their mass.
Gravity is an attractive interaction between two objects that have mass, it depends on their distance.

Gravitation governs the whole universe (solar system, stars and galaxies).


Weight and mass

Remote action exerted by the Earth on an object in its neighborhood: weight of a body.
The weight P and the mass m of an object are two quantities of different kinds and they are proportional.
The unit of weight is the newton (N).
The relationship of proportionality is expressed by P = mg

An object has:
- An energy position close to the Earth;
- Energy of motion called kinetic energy.
The sum of its kinetic energy of position and is its mechanical energy.
Conservation of energy during a fall.


- Kinetic energy and road safety


The kinetic energy: the relationship giving the kinetic energy of a solid translation is:
Ec = 1 / 2 m.v².
The kinetic energy is measured in joules (J).
The braking distance is growing faster than the speed.


- The Universe in motion and time

- Movements and forces


Relativity of motion


Principle of inertia

Effects of a force on the motion of a body. Role of body mass

Statement of the principle of inertia for a terrestrial observer, "every body perseveres in its state of rest or uniform motion if the forces acting on it cancel out"

Universal gravitation

The gravitational interaction between two bodies.

Gravity result of gravity.
Comparison of the weight of one body on earth and the moon.

Trajectory of a projectile.
Interpretation of the movement of the Moon (or satellite) by extrapolating the motion of a projectile.

- The fundamental interactions


- Elementary Particles

The constituents of matter: neutrons, protons, electrons.
Elementary charge.


- Fundamental interactions

- The mass and the gravitational interaction, Newton's law.
- Expenses and electrical interaction, Coulomb's law, direction, meaning, value:
F = Kqq'/d2 with k = 9x109 IS
Electrification phenomena.
Insulators. Drivers; charge carriers: electrons and ions
- The nucleon and the strong interaction.
Two interactions at work in the kernel: the Coulomb repulsion between protons offset up to uranium, in an attractive interaction of intense but short range.


- Interactions and cohesion of the material at various scales

astronomical scale
atomic scale and human
across the nucleus.



- Forces, work and energy





- Motion of a rigid body

1. Vector speed of a point of the solid
2. Centre of inertia of a solid
3. Translational motion of a solid
4. Movement of a solid rotation around a fixed axis, angular velocity


- Forces acting on a macroscopic solid

Actions on a solid examples of effects (maintaining balance, setting in motion of translation, rotation, deformation)


- An approach to Newton's laws applied to the center of inertia

1st law : The principle of inertia
This principle is true that in some benchmarks
These repositories are called Galilean.
Second law : Appearance Semi-Quantitative comparison of the sum of the forces and the variation of the velocity vector of center of mass in a Galilean.
Third law : The principle of reciprocal actions




Magnetic field


Action of a magnet, a current, a very short needle.
Magnetic field vector B : direction, meaning, value and unit.
Examples of magnetic field lines, uniform magnetic field.
Superposition of two magnetic fields (vector addition)


Magnetic field created by a current


Proportionality of the field value B and the current in the absence of magnetic media.
Magnetic field created by:
- A straight current;
- A solenoid.


Electromagnetic forces


Laplace's law :

management, direction, value of the force


Electromagnetic coupling


Conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy. Role of Laplace forces. Observation of the effect associated with the reciprocal motion of a circuit in a magnetic field: conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.





- Work of a force

Concepts of work force

Possible effects of a force whose point of application moves.

Working of a constant force

Work unit: the joule (symbol : J).

Expression of the work of the weight of a body.
Engine work, work-resistant.

Power work of one or more forces


- Work: a mode of energy transfer

Work and Kinetic Energy

In a terrestrial reference, experimental study of free fall of a body near the Earth's work weight :

WAB(P) = Δ[(1/2)MVG2 ]

Energy interpretation, definition of the kinetic energy of a solid translation.
Generalization: a solid translation subjected to various forces : (1/2)MVB2 - (1/2)MVA2= ΣWAB(Fext)


Work and gravitational potential energy

Potential energy of a strong interaction with the Earth ;

Special case situations are located near the Earth.

Relationship : Epp = Mgz .

Conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy in the case of free fall.


Work and internal energy

Some other effects of work received (elastic deformation, temperature rise, changes in physico-chemical).
Concept of internal energy.


- Heat transfer

Work can produce a given rise in temperature of a body. A similar rise in temperature can be achieved by transfer of energy in another form: heat transfer; microscopic appearance.
Other mode of energy transfer: radiation.

- To produce sounds, listen


Production of sound by musical instruments

Vibrating mechanical system associated with a system for coupling with the air
- Illustration by simple
- For a few real instruments


Vibration modes

Vibration of a rope stretched between two fixed points

Highlighting modes of vibration by sinusoidal excitation: fundamental mode, harmonic quantification of their frequency.
Nodes and antinodes of vibration.

Free oscillations of a plucked string or struck: interpretation of the sound emitted by the superposition of these modes.


Vibration of a column of air

Highlighting modes of vibration by sinusoidal excitation.
Simplified model of excitation of a column of air through a reed or a bevel : selection of frequencies emitted by the length of the air column.


Wave interpretation.
Reflection on a single fixed obstacle

Observing the reflection of a wave on a fixed obstacle; qualitative interpretation of the shape of the reflected wave.
For a sine wave incident.
Wave: superposition of the incident wave and sine wave reflected from a fixed obstacle.


Reflections on two fixed obstacles: quantification of observed modes.

Wave of any shape between two fixed obstacles: recurrent imposed by the distance L between the two fixed points and the speed v, the period is 2L/v.

Standing wave between two fixed obstacles: quantification methods ; relation 2L = nλ (n integer); justification of own frequencies :

nn = nV/2L.


Transposition to a column of air excited by a loudspeaker

Qualitative observation of the phenomenon.


Musical acoustics and physics of sound
Audible frequency range, sensitivity of the ear.
Pitch of a sound and fundamental frequency, timbre: the importance of harmonics and their attack transients and extinction.
Loudness, intensity reference :

Sound level: the decibel sound,

Range: octaves, tempered scale.


- Temporal evolution of mechanical systems


Newtonian mechanics

Qualitative connection between ΣFext and ΔvG.

Comparison ΔvG corresponding to equal intervals of time for forces of different values (result of the activity).

Introduction ΔvG /Δt

Acceleration :

aG = lim Δt à 0 (ΔvG /Δt) = dvG/dt ;

acceleration vector (direction, sense, value).

Role of the mass.
Newton's second law applied to the center of inertia.
Importance of the choice of the reference in the study of motion of the center of inertia of a solid: Galilean.
Newton's third law: law of reciprocal actions.


Case Study

Vertically falling of an solid object

Force of gravity, the notion of uniform gravity field.

- Fall vertical friction

Application of Newton's second law of motion to a vertical drop: forces applied to the solid (weight, buoyancy, fluid friction force) differential equation of motion resolution by an iterative numerical method, the original scheme and asymptotic regime ( called "permanent"), speed limit; notion of characteristic time.

- Vertical free fall

Uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, acceleration independent of the mass of the object.
Analytical solution of the differential equation of motion importance of initial conditions.


Plane movements

- Movements of projectiles in a uniform gravitational field

Application of Newton's second law to the movement of center of mass of a projectile in a uniform gravitational field in the case where friction can be neglected.
Parametric equations hours.
Equation of the trajectory.
Importance of initial conditions.


- Satellites and Planets

Kepler's laws (circular or elliptical path).
Heliocentric and geocentric reference systems.
Study of a uniform circular motion, velocity, acceleration vector, normal acceleration.
Statement of the law of universal gravitation for objects whose mass distribution is spherically symmetric and the distance to their large size (recall).
Application of Newton's second law of inertia at the center of a satellite or a planet: centripetal force, radial acceleration, modeling the movement of the centers of inertia of the satellites and planets using a circular motion and uniform applications ( period of revolution, speed, altitude, geostationary satellite).
Qualitative interpretation of weightlessness in the case of a satellite in uniform circular motion.


Oscillating systems

Presentation of various mechanical oscillating systems

Pendulum weight, simple and robust system clock-spring free oscillation : equilibrium position, deviation from equilibrium, X angle, amplitude, damping (pseudo-periodic regime, aperiodic regime), pseudo-isochronous period and small oscillations, natural period.
Expression of the natural period of a pendulum simple justification for the form of expression by dimensional analysis.


The {object-spring} mechanism

Return force exerted by a spring.

Study dynamics of the system "solid" : choice of repository, balance of forces, under the second law of Newton, differential equation, analytical solution in the case of zero friction. Natural period.


Introduction to the temporal evolution of systems


Present, through the documents most diverse real-life situations where the time evolution is of particular importance: seismic waves, mechanical vibrations, movements swings, Earth-Moon laser, increasing the speed of transport (Train high speed), increasing the clock frequency of computers, time scale of plate tectonics, and launch a rocket into orbit satellites, the Mir space station falling, parachute jumping and the elastic, improving sports performance, etc..


- Propagation of a wave


Mechanical waves progressive



From the examples given in operation generate the following definition of a mechanical wave:
"Called the phenomenon of mechanical wave propagation of a disturbance in a medium without material transport".
Longitudinal waves, transverse.
Sound waves as longitudinal waves of compression-expansion.
General properties of waves:
- A wave propagates from the source in all directions available to them.
- The disturbance is transmitted from place to place, transfer of energy without transporting matter.
- The speed of propagation of a wave is a property of the medium.
- Two waves can cross without disturbing each other.


One-dimensional wave

Notion of one-dimensional wave.
Notion of delay: the disturbance at the point M at time t is that which previously existed at a point M 'at

t' = t - τ : with τ = M'M/v, τ is the delay and v the speed (for non-dispersive media)..


Mechanical progressive periodic wave


Notion of periodic wave.
Temporal frequency, period, spatial periodicity.
Sine wave, period, frequency, wavelength, ; relationship :

λ = v .T = v /N

Diffraction in the case of sine wave : experimental demonstration.
Influence of the size of the aperture or obstacle on the observed phenomenon.
Dispersal : evidence of the influence of frequency on the speed of the wave on the surface of the water dispersion medium term.



- The time evolution of systems and the measurement of time


This part is considered a revised year-end, around the time measurement. It has no theoretical knowledge or skills due new. The examples are not exhaustive and the teacher is free to expand.
How to measure time?
- From a radioactive decay (age of the Earth, age of cave paintings ...)
- From periodic phenomena
. maintained electrical oscillator (LC oscillator)
. movements of the stars
. rotation of the Earth
. pendulum clocks
. atomic clocks: definition of the second.
• Measure length to determine length
- From the propagation of a mechanical wave (ultrasonic range finder, ultrasound, sonar ...)
- From the propagation of light waves (laser ranging, Earth-Moon distance ...)
- The meter defined from the second and the speed of light
- The meter and the seconds pendulum
- History of the measurement of longitude
• Measure length to determine a speed
- Measure the speed of sound
- Measuring the speed of light










What is an electrical circuit?


Simple electrical circuit with a single lamp or a motor:

- Role of the generator;

- Son of connection;

- Role of the switch.

Drawing the diagram, standard symbols.

Concept of the loop.

Approach to the concept of a short circuit.



Simple electrical circuit loop


 generator, switch, lamp, motor, LED, diode, son of connection resistance (ohmic conductors), limiting itself, besides the switches to a generator and three components.



Influence of the order and number of components other than the generator.

Conductors and insulators.
Special cases of the switch and the diode.
Conducting nature of the human body.

Conventional current.


Series and parallel bulbs


The electrical circuit comprising leads.


Back to the short circuit: the distinction between short-circuit of a generator and short circuit of a lamp.





Current and voltage


Introduction procedure of intensity and tension.

Intensity : measurement, unit.

Voltage : measurement, unit.

Notion of branch and node.

Laws uniqueness of the intensity direct current in a series circuit and additivity of the intensity in a circuit with leads (parallel components)

Additivity law verified for the voltage.

The behavior of a single loop circuit is independent of the order of the components associated in series that constitute it.

Universal (independent of the object) of the two previous laws.

Adaptation of a component in a given generation.

Current and voltage.

Overvoltage and undervoltage.





Experimental approach to the "resistance" electric.

Unit of electrical resistance.



Ohm's Law


The model of the component derived ohmic experimental results.
Ohm's law.

Safety: Fuse.


- Conduction and electrical structure of matter


The electron: understanding the electrical conduction in metals

All metals conduct electricity. All solids do not conduct electrical current. Electrical conduction in metals is interpreted by moving electrons.


- The ion: Understanding the electrical conduction in aqueous solutions

All aqueous solutions do not conduct electrical current.
Conduction of electrical current is interpreted by a displacement of ions.





- From the power plant to the user

The alternator is the part common to all power plants.
The energy received by the generator is converted into electrical energy.
Distinction between renewable energy sources or not.


The alternator

Tension, time-varying, can be obtained by moving a magnet near a coil.


DC and AC voltage periodically

DC voltage and variable over time, periodic alternating voltage.
Maximum and minimum values of a voltage.


The oscilloscope and / or acquisition interface, the instrument measures the voltage and duration
The frequency of a periodic voltage and its unit, the hertz (Hz) in the International System (SI).
Relationship between period and frequency.
The voltage is alternative. It is sinusoidal.
The frequency of the mains voltage in France is 50 Hz

For a sinusoidal voltage, an voltmeter used AC indicates the effective value of this voltage.

This effective value is proportional to the maximum value.


- Electrical Power and Energy


Power : rated power a device.
The watt (W) is the power unit of the International System (SI).
Statement reflecting for a resistive component, the relation P = U, where U and I magnitudes are effective.
The intensity of electric current in a wire should not exceed a value determined by a safety criterion.
The circuit breaker protects equipment and installations against surges.


Energy : Energy: Electrical energy E transferred for a time t to a unit rated power P is given by the relation
E = P.t
The joule (J) is the energy unit of the International System (SI).




- Transfers of energy in a generator and a receiver.


Electric power We received by a receiver, through which the current I, during Δt :

We = (VA-VB) I Δt

with UAB = (VA-VB) > 0.

Electrical power transfer:



Joule effect : applications


Electrical energy transferred from the electric generator to the rest of the circuit during Δt :

We = (VP-VN) I Δt

(VP-VN) = UPN means the voltage between the positive and negative terminals of the generator and I the current passing through it.
Electrical power transfer:



Summary of energy transfer during Δt

Receiver absorbs electrical energy UAB I Δt , and "clears" some r.I2.Δt and converts the rest in another form (mechanical, chemical ...).
A generator converts partly a form of energy (mechanical, chemical ...) E.I.
Δt into electrical energy available UPN.I.Δt

Complement r.I2.Δt is dissipated as heat by Joule effect.


- Behavior of a global circuit


Distribution of electric power during Δt :

We(generator) = ΣWe(receivers)

Justification energy additivity law of tension and intensity (node or junction law = Kirchhoff's Law) .


Study of parameters affecting the energy transferred by the generator to the rest of a resistive cicuit:
- Influence of the electromotive force E
- Influence of resistance and their associations
- Relation : I = E / Req

- Maximum power available at the terminals of a generator, tolerated by a receiver.




Magnetic field


Action of a magnet, a current, a very short needle.
Magnetic field vector B : direction, meaning, value and unit.
Examples of magnetic field lines, uniform magnetic field.
Superposition of two magnetic fields (vector addition)


Magnetic field created by a current


Proportionality of the field value B and the current in the absence of magnetic media.
Magnetic field created by:
- A straight current;
- A solenoid.


Electromagnetic forces


Laplace's law :

management, direction, value of the force: F = I.l .B.sinα


Electromagnetic coupling


Conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy. Role of Laplace forces. Observation of the effect associated with the reciprocal motion of a circuit in a magnetic field: conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.


- Changes in electrical systems


In case of a component RC


The capacitor

Brief description, symbol.
Charges frames.
Current: Flow of loads.
Algebraization in agreement receiver i, u, q.

Intensity-dependent relationship for a capacitor i = dq/dt, q capacitor charge in agreement receiver.
Charge-voltage relationship q= C.u ; capacity, unit the farad (F).


RC Component

Component response of a RC to a level of voltage: voltage across the capacitor, the current intensity, experimental and theoretical study (analytical solution).
Energy stored in a capacitor.
Continuity of the voltage across the capacitor.
Know the symbolic representation of a capacitor.


In case of a RL component


The coil

Brief description of a coil symbol.
Voltage across a coil receiver convention:

u = ri + L di /dt

Inductance: the unity henry (H).


Component RL

Current response of a coil to a voltage step: experimental and theoretical study (analytical solution).
Energy stored in a coil.
Continuity of current in a circuit containing a coil.

Free oscillations in a series RLC circuit
Oscillatory discharge of a capacitor in a coil.
Influence of depreciation: periodic regimes, pseudo-periodic, aperiodic.
Natural period and pseudo-period.
Interpretation energy: energy transfer between the capacitor and the coil, the Joule effect.
Analytical resolution in the case of a significant depreciation.
Expression of the natural period

T0 = 2 Π LC

Maintenance of oscillations.


- To produce signals to communicate


Electromagnetic waves, medium of choice to transmit information

Transmission of information

Through various examples, show that the simultaneous transmission of several information requires a "channel" assigned to each.
Interest in the use of a wave: long-range transport of a signal containing information without transport of matter but with transmission.


The electromagnetic waves

Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum and material media in many ...
Classification of electromagnetic waves at the frequency and the wavelength in vacuum.
Role of a transmitting antenna (creation of an electromagnetic wave), a receiving antenna (obtaining an electrical signal from an electromagnetic wave).


Module of a sinusoidal voltage

Information and modulation
Mathematical expression of a sinusoidal voltage :

u(t) = Umax cos(2πft + Φ0)

Parameters can be modulated: amplitude, frequency and / or phase.


2. Amplitude modulation

2.1 principe de la modulation d'amplitude

Amplitude modulated voltage: voltage whose amplitude is linear function of the modulating voltage.
An embodiment of an amplitude modulation.
Concept of modulation.
Choice of signal frequency to be modulated according to the characteristic frequencies of the modulating signal.


Principle of the amplitude demodulation

Functions to be performed to demodulate an amplitude modulated voltage.
Experimental verification:
- The envelope detection performed by the group consisting of the diode and RC parallel assembly.
- The elimination of the DC component by an RC high-pass filter.
Restitution of the modulating signal.


Realization of a disposotif to receive a radio amplitude modulation

The component coil capacitor connected in parallel experimental study, by modeling a parallel LC circuit.
Association of the component and an antenna for receiving an amplitude modulated signal.
Production of a radio receiver in amplitude modulation.









From air to molecule


Air composition


Dioxygen, forming air with nitrous.


The oxygen necessary for life.



Volume and mass of air.


Character of a compressible gas.

Mass of a given volume of gas.



A molecular description to understand


A first particle model to interpret the compressibility of a gas.

Distinction between mixed and pure body for air and water vapor.

The existence of the molecule.

The three states of water through the molecular description:
- A gas is dispersed and disorganized;
- The liquid state is compact and disordered;
- Solid state is compact, crystalline solids are ordered.

Interpretation of mass conservation during state changes and in mixtures.





Combustion requires the presence of reactants (fuel and oxidizer) that are consumed during the combustion of new products are formed.

Combustion of carbon.

Test of carbon dioxide: carbon dioxide reacts with lime water to give a precipitate of calcium carbonate.

Combustion of butane and / or methane.

Tests of carbon dioxide and water formed.


The atoms to understand the chemical transformation


Atomic interpretation of two or three combustions.

The molecules consist of atoms.

The loss of some or all of the reagents and the formation of products is a rearrangement of atoms into new molecules.

The atoms are represented by symbols, the molecules by formulas.

The equation of the reaction explain the meaning of the transformation (the arrow goes from reactants to products).

The atoms in the products are similar and the same number as in the reactants.

The total mass is conserved during a chemical transformation. Balancing an equation balance.


Metals, electrons and ions

- Metals daily

Some base metal : iron, zinc, aluminum, copper, silver and gold.


- Conduction and electrical structure of matter


The electron: understanding the electrical conduction in metals

All metals conduct electricity. All solids do not conduct electrical current. Electrical conduction in metals is interpreted by moving electrons.


The ion: Understanding the electrical conduction in aqueous solutions

All aqueous solutions do not conduct electrical current.
Conduction of electrical current is interpreted by a displacement of ions.
Constituents of the atom: nucleus and electrons.
Atoms and molecules are electrically neutral, the electron and the ions are electrically charged.


- Some tests for recognition of ions


The forms of Na+, Cl-, Cu2 +, Fe2+ and Fe3 +.
Areas of acidity and alkalinity in aqueous solution.
A neutral aqueous solution contains as many hydrogen ions H+ than OH- hydroxide ions.
In an acid solution, there are more hydrogen H
+ ions than  HO-hydroxide ions.
The dangers of concentrated acid or alkaline products.


- Reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid interpretation


- Hydrogen and chloride ions are present in a solution of hydrochloric acid.
- Criteria for recognition of a chemical change: the disappearance of reactants and appearance of products.


- Battery (lectrochemical cell) and chemical energy


- The chemical species present in a cell containing the chemical energy of which is transferred in other forms of energy when operating.

- The energy involved in a pile from a chemical reaction: the consumption of reagents results in "wear" the battery.


- Summary of chemical species


Is it possible to synthesize the aroma of banana?
The synthesis of chemical species existing in nature can reduce the cost and / or availability. (Isoamyl acetate)

Can we create new chemical species?
The synthesis of chemical species do not exist in nature can improve living conditions. (Nylon or soap)
The nylon and plastics are made of macromolecules.


"Chemical or natural ?"


- Chemistry of the world, highlighting the ubiquity of chemical species


Inventory and classification of some chemical species
Chemical species and natural synthetic chemical species


 The world of chemistry: experimental approaches and history of the extraction, separation and identification of chemical species


Techniques for extracting organic chemical species


a) Historical approach
b) The principle of solvent extraction
c) Extraction of chemical species from a 'product' of nature: solvent extraction or steam


Separation and identification of chemical species


Characterization and identification by comparison of a chemical species extracted.
a) chromatography
Principle of chromatography: stationary phase, mobile phase, revelation, interpretation, application to the separation of a mixture of species and analysis.
b) Physical
Tf, bp, density, refractive index, "color", solubilities.


- The world of chemistry: the synthesis of chemical species in the laboratory and in industry

The need to synthetic chemistry.

Some examples of synthesis in the heavy chemicals and fine chemicals (high value) from the raw materials of nature and the needs of consumers.

Synthesis of a chemical species

Characterization of a synthetic chemical species and comparison with a natural extract with the same chemical that the species synthesized.


Constitution of the matter


- Simple models for description of the atom


A model of the atom

Nucleus (protons and neutrons), electrons:
Number of charge and atomic number Z.
Number of nucleons A.
Elementary charge, charges of the constituents of the atom.
Electroneutrality of the atom
Mass: mass of the constituents of the atom mass approximation of an atom and its nucleus, considered as the sum of the masses of its constituents.
Size: magnitude of the ratio of the respective dimensions of the atom and its nucleus.


The chemical element

Definitions of isotopes.
Definitions of the monatomic ions
Characterization of the element's atomic number and symbol.
Conservation of the element in the chemical transformations.


A model of the electron cloud

Distribution of electrons in different layers, called K, L, M.
Distribution of electrons for the elements of Z between 1 and 18.


- From the atom to the chemical structures


The rules of the "duet" and the byte

a) Statement of rules of the stability of noble gas atoms (or "scarce"), chemical inertness.
b) Application to mono-atomic ions stable.
c) Application to molecules with the Lewis model of the covalent bond.
Lewis representation of a few molecules.
Enumeration of pairs of electrons binders and non binders.
Concept of isomerism.


The geometry of some simple molecules.

Provision of pairs of electrons according to their number.
Application to molecules having only single bonds.
Representation of Cram.


- The Periodic Table


Periodic table.

Mendeleev's approach to establish its classification; his genius, his mistakes.
The current criteria of classification: Z and the electrons of the outer layer.


Using the periodic table.

Chemical families.

Usual formulas of molecules and charges of monoatomic ions; generalization to higher Z elements.


- Transformations of matter


- Tools description of a system

The microscopic scale to macroscopic scale: the mole
Unit amount of substance: the mole.

Avogadro constant, NA
Molar mass "atomic" : M (g mol-1).
Molecular weight molecules.
Molar volume Vm (L.mol-1) to T and P.

Molar concentration of molecular species in solution.

Notions of solvent, solute, solution and aqueous solution.
Dissolution of a molecular species.
Molar concentration of species dissolved in solution unsaturated.
Dilution of a solution.


- Transformation of a chemical


Modeling the transformation: chemical reaction

Examples of chemical changes.
Initial state and final state of a system.
Chemical reaction.
Writing symbolic of the reaction
Chemical equation.
Reactants and products.
Adjustment of stoichiometric numbers.


Matter balance

Introduction to progress.
Expression of the quantities of matter (in mol) of reactants and products during the transformation.
Limiting reagent and maximum progress
Material balance.
This increase in content is accompanied by the construction of a table describing the evolution of the system during processing.


- The measurement in chemistry




From examples taken from everyday life, show the need for different measurement techniques and raise awareness of the choice of a technique based on a target.




Mass, volume, pressure


Physical quantities related to the quantities of solid or liquid (mass, volume) and gas (mass, volume, pressure).

Molar volume of an ideal gas pressure and temperature known.


- Concentration ; electrolyte solutions


Ionic solid.
Obtaining an electrolyte solution by dissolving ionic solids, liquids or gases in water.
Dipolar character of a molecule (permanent dipole): examples of the molecule of hydrogen chloride and water molecule, correlated with the periodic table.
Solvation of ions, interaction between dissolved ions and water molecules. Special case of the proton.
Molar concentration of solute introduced, denoted c, and effective molar concentration of dissolved species, denoted [X].


- Applications to monitoring of chemical transformation


Evolution of a system during a chemical transformation: progress, descriptive overview of the evolution and mass balance.




Conductance of an ionic solution, G


Method of measuring the conductance.
Influencing variables (temperature and surface electrodes, surface electrodes, distance between them, nature and concentration of the solution).
Calibration curve G = f (c).


Ionic conductivity of a solution, σ


Definition from the relationship
G = σ.S / L
Relationship between σ and c.


Ionic molar conductivity, li, and the relationship between ionic conductivity and molar conductivity of a solution


Using a molar ionic conductivities table of the most common ions.
Comparison of ionic conductivities of the molecular ion H+(aq) and HO-(aq) with other ions.
Limitations of the method of calibration.




Acid-base reactions


Examples of acid-base reactions as reactions involving the transfer of protons.
From the writing of each of the reactions, bring out the definition of an acid and a basic sense of


Some common acids and bases.
Acid / base pair.
Pairs of water :

H3O+/H2O ; H2O/HO-(aq).

Water is an ampholyte.


Redox reactions


Examples of redox reactions such as reactions involving electron transfer.
From the writing of each of the reactions, the emergence, in simple cases, the definition of an oxidizer and a reducing agent.
Couple oxidative / reductive.
Highlighting the need for a method and a formalism to write the equation of a redox reaction.
Using the periodic table to give examples of reducing agents (metals) and among non-oxidizing metals (dihalogen and oxygen).


Assays direct


The chemical reaction as a tool for determining the quantities of matter.
Using a table describing the evolution of the system during the assay.
Equivalence in a dosage.




The creative chemistry



- ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: From birth to its omnipresence in THE DAILY


What is organic chemistry ?


Identify the field of organic chemistry.
Natural resources: photosynthesis, biochemical synthesis and hydrocarbon fuels.


Carbon building block in organic chemistry


How the carbon atom it establishes links with other atoms ?


Key dates in the history of organic chemistry


The ubiquity of organic chemistry







An organic molecule has a carbon skeleton, and possibly characteristics of the groups.


The carbon skeleton


The variety of carbon chains
- Linear chain, branched or cyclic saturated and unsaturated.
Empirical formula, formula developed semi flat topological approach to writing, constitutional isomers demonstrated on some simple examples of the Z isomer and E
- Influence of the carbon chain on the physical properties: boiling point, density, solubility (the examples are taken from the saturated chains).
- Application to fractional distillation.

The modification of the carbon skeleton.
Lengthening, shortening, branching, cyclization, dehydrogenation, or from some industrial applications, oil chemistry, polyaddition of alkenes and ethylene derivatives.


The group features: introduction to the reactivity


a) Recognize the families of compounds: amino, halogenated compound, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid.

b) To illustrate the reactivity of alcohols: oxidation, dehydration (elimination), transition to halogenated compounds (substitution).

c) Passage of a group characteristic to another: some examples in the laboratory and in industry


- The energy in everyday life : The cohesion of matter and energy aspects of its transformations



Cohesion of the matter


The molecule: of atoms, binding energy of a bond AB, rated DAB.


Assemblies of molecules: the solid and liquid compared to gas (magnitude of the distances between molecules, in order to disorder), cohesive energy.


Transformations of matter and energy aspects associated thermal effects


Chemical transformations.
Change of state.
Use bond energies to estimate the magnitude of the energy transferred during a reaction involving the chemical species in the gaseous state.


Some everyday applications of thermal effects


Transport and heating : challenges and environmental consequences.


Introduction: The issues facing the chemical


- Identify the activities of the chemist and the issues of chemistry in society.
- Remove some questions that arise in his professional chemist.


- The transformation of a chemical system is it still fast?


Slow and fast changes

- Identification of experimental changes fast and slow.
- Identification of experimental kinetic factors: temperature and concentration of reactants.
- Reminders on couples oxidizing / reducing and writing equations of redox reactions.


Time tracking of a transformation

- Plotting of curves of change of amount of substance or concentration of a species and the progress of the reaction over time: using the table describing the evolution of the chemical system, operating experiences.
- Speed of response:
Setting the volume rate of reaction expressed in units of quantity of material per unit time and volume.

v = (1/V) x (dx/dt )  where x is the progress of the reaction and V the volume of the solution.
Changes in the rate of reaction over time.
- Half-reaction noted t1/2 :
Definition and determination methods.
Choosing a method for monitoring the transformation depending on the value of t1/2.
A new analysis technique, spectrophotometry: absorbance A quantity measured by the spectrophotometer.
Relationship between absorbance and concentration of a species effective color solution for a given wavelength and for a given thickness of crossing solution.
Monitoring the kinetics of chemical transformation by spectrophotometry.


What interpretation given to the microscopic level?

Interpretation of the chemical reaction under shock e effective.
Interpretation of the influence of the concentration of reactive species and temperature on the number of shocks and shock efficient per unit of time.


- The transformation of a chemical system is it always full ?


Chemical transformation is not always complete and the reaction takes place in both directions

- Introduction of pH and its measurement.
- Identification of an experimental chemical transformation given a final progress different from the maximum progress.
- Symbolism write the equation of the reaction: the equal sign =.
- State of equilibrium of a chemical system.
- Rate final progress of a reaction :

 τ = χfinal/ χmaximal.

- Interpretation at the microscopic level of steady state in terms of kinetic impact effective between reactive species on the one hand and the other entities produced.


State of equilibrium of a system

- Reaction Quotient, Qr : literal expression based on molar concentrations of dissolved species in a given state of the system.
- Generalization to various examples in aqueous solution homogeneous or heterogeneous (presence of solids).
- Determining the value of the quotient of reaction in the equilibrium state of the system, denoted Qr,éq.

- Equilibrium constant K associated with the equation of a reaction at a given temperature.
-Influence of the initial state of a system on the final stage of completion of a reaction.


Changes associated with acid-base reactions in aqueous solution

- Autoprotolysis of the water equilibrium constant called the ionic product of water, denoted by Ke et pKe.

- Scale pH solution acidic, basic and neutral.
- Acidity constant, denoted KA et pKA.

- Comparison of the behavior in solution, at the same concentration, acids and bases them together.
- Equilibrium constant associated with acid-base reaction.
- Diagrams prevalence and distribution of acidic and basic species in solution.
- Zone of turn of a colored indicator acid-base.
- PH-metric titration of an acid or base in water to determine the amount paid to the equity method and to choose a color indicator for an acid-base titration.
- What is the total transformation?
Determination of final progress of a reaction on an example of acid-base titration.


- meaning "spontaneous" evolution of a system is predictable ?
The direction of evolution of a chemical system can be reversed ?


A self-limiting chemical steady state

- Reaction Quotient, Qr: literal expression (recall) and calculate its value for any given state of a system.
- Over time, the value of the reaction quotient Qr tends to the equilibrium constant K (criterion for spontaneous change).
- Illustration of the test on acid-base reactions and redox reactions.


Batteries, devices involving spontaneous transformations to recover energy

- Spontaneous transfer of electrons between chemical species (mixed or separated) for two couples oxidative / reductive type of metal ion / metal, Mn+ / M(s).
- Establishment and functioning of a cell: observation of the direction of flow of electricity, moving charge carriers, the role of salt bridge, electrode reactions.
The battery system off balance in its functioning as a generator.
During the spontaneous evolution, the value of the quotient of reaction tends to the equilibrium constant. Cell balance "dead battery" maximum amount of electricity charged in a circuit.
- Electromotive force of a battery (emf) E: measurement, electrode polarity, direction of current flow (related to the physics course).
- Example of conventional battery.


Examples of changes forced

- Identification of experimental possibility, in some cases to change the direction of evolution of a system by applying a current in the opposite direction to that observed when the system evolves spontaneously (forced transformation).
- Reactions to the electrodes, anode and cathode.
- Application to electrolysis: principle and examples of common applications and industries.




- How to control the chemist does the transformations of matter?
Examples from the engineering and the life sciences


The reactions of esterification and hydrolysis

- Formation of an ester from an acid and an alcohol, write the equation of the corresponding reaction called esterification reaction.
- Hydrolysis of an ester, write the equation of the corresponding reaction.
- Identification of experimental steady state during transformations involving reactions of esterification and hydrolysis.
- Definition of the performance of a transformation.
- Definition of a catalyst.
- Control the speed of reaction temperature and catalyst.
- Control of the final state of a system: an over-reactive or disposal of a product.


Examples of monitoring the evolution of chemical systems made in the chemical industry and in the life sciences

- Change of a reagent
Synthesis of an ester from an acid anhydride and an alcohol.
Basic hydrolysis of esters: application to the saponification of fatty substances (preparations and properties of soap, structure-properties).

- Using catalysis
Homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous enzyme: selectivity of the catalysts.



- Extract and identify chemical species


- Eugenol in the clove.
- Citral and limonene in lemon peel, orange in the leaves
- Trimyristin in the nutmeg.
- Gallic acid in powder Tara.
Chromatography (adsorption and shares) thin layer on paper or column (Pasteur pipette) (1 meeting)
- Food coloring in a syrup, a soft drinks or a candy.
- Dyes paprika.
- Sugars in fruit juice.
- Identification of the active ingredients in a drug
(Aspirin, paracetamol and caffeine).
- Analysis of a brass.
- Amino acids, hydrolysis products of aspartame.
- Pigments in green plants (spinach, sorrel, etc.).


- Create and reproduce the chemical species

- Preserving Food: benzoic acid.
- Food coloring: amaranth.
- Aroma: vanilla.
- Synthesis of an imine having the properties of a liquid crystal.
- Synthesis of an amide analgesic: acetaminophen.
- Synthesis of a polyamide: nylon.



- Perform quality control


- Calibration

- Iron Ions in a wine or a tape.
- "Chlorine" in pool water.
- Food coloring in confectionery.
- Copper in brass.
- Methylene blue in eye drops.


- direct titration (d), indirect (i)


Redox reaction

- Vitamin C in lemon juice (or d i).
- Ethanol in wine (i).
- Hydrogen peroxide officinale (d).
- Bleach (i).
- Total sulfur dioxide in white wine (i).
- Iron Ions in a crop protection product, a mineral or a magnetic strip (i).


Acid-base reaction

• direct titration monitored by pH meter or indicator end of the reaction.
• Titration of acid
- Lactic acid in milk.
- Vitamin C in one tablet.
- Acid value of oil.
• Base Titration
- Hydrogen ions in a mineral water or a solution
infusion pharmacy.
- Ammonia drugstore.


Other reactions


Reaction of precipitation

• Complete Flag Response
- Chloride ions in water or in a moisture absorber (d).
- Silver ions in a paper or photographic film (d).
• Conductivity
- Chloride ions in a mineral water (d).
- Sulfate ions in a mineral water (d).
- Heavy metals in wastewater (silver ions, lead ions (II), etc..) (D).


Reaction complexation with terminator reaction

- Calcium and magnesium ions in a mineral water (d).
- Calcium ions alone in a mineral water or in an absorber
humidity (d).



- Iodine value of oil (unsaturated) by the Wijs reagent (i).


- Develop a "product" consumer: the raw matter in the formulation



Illustrations of some methods used in hydrometallurgical

• Production of an oxide from an ore:

- Alumina, a step in the development of aluminum,
- Titanium dioxide (IV), a step in the development of titanium.

• Separation :

- Iron ions (III) ions zinc (II), a step in the development of zinc,
- Iron ions (III) ions copper (II), a step in the development of copper.



Purify, protect (against corrosion), embellish, recover
• refining of copper.
• Electrolytic deposition:
- Anodized aluminum,
- Electrolytic tin plating of steel
- Electro.
• Recovery of tin (treatment of liquid effluents).

Formulate, package

Retrieval with experimental support wherever possible
- The different formulations of aspirin and paracetamol,
- Food preservatives,
- Food packaging.











The water in our environment


Omnipresence of water
in our environment.

Water, drinks and a constituent of living organisms.

Recognition test of the water.




Aqueous mixtures


Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.

Separation of some components of aqueous mixtures.

Examples of heterogeneous constituents of beverages.

Existence of the gas dissolved in water.

The recognition test of carbon dioxide in lime water




Homogeneous mixtures and pure body.


Water, homogeneous mixtures.

Presence in a mineral substances other than water.

Obtaining water (almost) pure by distillation.





State changes of water, phenomenological approach


First approach to the states of matter.

Specific properties of each physical state.

State changes are invertible.
Water cycle.

Mass measurements, unit, the kilogram (kg).

Volume measurement, unit, per cubic meter (m3).

Distinction between mass and volume.

Conservation of mass during state changes and not the volume conservation.

Locating a temperature, unit: degree Celsius (° C).

Existence of a temperature plateau during a change of state for a pure substance.



Water : solvent


Water is a solvent of some solids and some gas, it is miscible with some liquid.

Conservation of total mass during a dissolution.

Vocabulary of dissolution: the notion of saturated solution is limited to a qualitative approach.


Air composition


Dioxygen, forming air with nitrous.


The oxygen necessary for life.



Volume and mass of air.


Character of a compressible gas.

Mass of a given volume of gas.



A molecular description to understand


A first particle model to interpret the compressibility of a gas.

Distinction between mixed and pure body for air and water vapor.

The existence of the molecule.

The three states of water through the molecular description:
- A gas is dispersed and disorganized;
- The liquid state is compact and disordered;
- Solid state is compact, crystalline solids are ordered.

Interpretation of mass conservation during state changes and in mixtures.









- Nuclear Transformations


Radioactive decay


Stability and instability of nuclei

Composition ; isotopy ; notation



Graph (N,Z)


The radioactivity

Radioactivity α, β-, β+, γ emission.

Laws of conservation of electric charge and the number of nucleons


Law of decline

Evolution of the population mean of a set of radioactive nuclei

   ΔN = - λ N Δt ; N = N0 e-λt.

Importance of the activity :

   |ΔN |/ Δt ; the becquerel.

Time constant τ = I / λ.

Half-life t1/2 = τ ln2.

Application to dating.


Nuclei, mass, energy


Mass-energy equivalence

Mass defect, binding energy

ΔE = Δm c2 ; units : eV, keV, MeV.

Binding energy per nucleon.
Mass-energy equivalence.
Aston Charts - El /A = f(A)


Fission and Fusion

Operating curve Aston; areas of fission and fusion.


Balance of mass and energy of a nuclear reaction

Samples for radioactivity, for fission and fusion.
Existence of conditions to achieve for the initiation of fission reactions and fusion.